Wood Species: Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spruce-Pine-Fir Truss systems

Truss systems

Structural lumber

Structural lumber

Four species, White Spruce (Picea glauca), Engelmann Spruce (Piceaengelmanni), Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), and Alpine Fir (Abieslaciocarpa) comprise the spruce-pine-fir species group. All yield high grade timber with relatively small, sound tight knots. Lumber produced from spruce-pine-fir Species is marketed together as SPF.

SPF lumber is a distinctly white wood, with very little color variation between springwood and summerwood. The wood has a bright, clean appearance, ranging in color from white to pale yellow, with a fine straight grain and smooth texture.


Kiln dried SPF lumber is used as a structural framing material in all types of residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural building applications.

Kiln dried SPF lumber is also used extensively in the manufacturing of prefabricated housing, trusses and other structural components. In addition to producing high quality structural lumber, with a little preparation, SPF can be made into very appealing, economical solid wood furniture.


Structural lumber, trusses, prefabricated housing, exterior decking, preservative treated poles, railway ties, outdoor furniture.

Technical Specifications

SPF lumber is seasoned uniformly in dry kilns to a moisture content of 19% or less. Kiln drying inhibits natural staining of the wood, improves its strength and stiffness, enhances its appearance and increases its resistance to decay and attack by insects.

SPF has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is well known for its outstanding working properties. It takes and holds nails exceptionally well and is easily worked with hand and power tools. It has good gluing, painting and staining properties.

Lodgepole Pine

Lodgepole Pine
  • Density (air dry average): 480 kg/cubic meters
  • Specific gravity (oven dry average): 0.47
  • Modulus of elasticity: 12 300 MPa
  • Modulus of rupture: 81.1 MPa

Western White Spruce

Western White Spruce
  • Density (air dry average): 420 kg/cubic meters
  • Specific gravity (oven dry average): 0.39
  • Modulus of elasticity: 9930 MPa
  • Modulus of rupture: 62.7 MPa

Engelmann Spruce

Engelmann Spruce
  • Density (air dry average): 450 kg/cubic meters
  • Specific gravity (oven dry average): 0.42
  • Modulus of elasticity: 10 700 MPa
  • Modulus of rupture: 69.5 MPa